We conducted a mixed-methods study - the focus of this article - to understand how workers in long-term care facilities experienced working conditions. We surveyed unionized care workers in Ontario (n = 917); we also surveyed workers in three Canadian provinces (n = 948) and four Scandinavian countries (n = 1,625). In post-survey focus groups, we presented respondents with survey questions and descriptive statistical findings, and asked them: "Does this reflect your experience?" Workers reported time pressures and the frequency of experiences of physical violence and unwanted sexual attention, as we explain. We discuss how iteratively mixing qualitative and quantitative methods to triangulate survey and focus group results led to expected data convergence and to unexpected data divergence that revealed a normalized culture of structural violence in long-term care facilities. We discuss how the finding of structural violence emerged and also the deeper meaning, context, and insights resulting from our combined methods.

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Keywords care work, health policy, iterative mixed methods, long-term care facilities, violence, working conditions
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1017/S071498081100016X
Journal Canadian Journal on Aging
Daly, T. (Tamara), Banerjee, A. (Albert), Armstrong, P. (Pat), Armstrong, H, & Szebehely, M. (Marta). (2011). Lifting the 'violence veil': Examining working conditions in long-term care facilities using iterative mixed methods. Canadian Journal on Aging, 30(2), 271–284. doi:10.1017/S071498081100016X