This article develops a novel multilateral test approach to the problem of international comparisons. Many of the associated tests are justified as "reasonable" using the fact that they are direct analogues to properties of the cost-of-living index. Further support is bestowed upon the new approach by showing that it is equivalent to an extended version of Diewert's (1986) multilateral test approach. Finally, a number of alternative multilateral comparison formulas are evaluated and the relative superiority of two of them is established.

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Journal International Economic Review
Armstrong, K. (2003). A restricted-domain multilateral test approach to the theory of international comparisons. International Economic Review, 44(1), 31–86. doi:10.1111/1468-2354.t01-1-00062