GEOtop is a fine-scale grid-based simulator that represents the heat and water budgets at and below the soil surface. It describes the three-dimensional water flow in the soil and the energy exchange with the atmosphere, considering the radiative and turbulent fluxes. Furthermore, it reproduces the highly non-linear interactions between the water and energy balance during soil freezing and thawing, and simulates the temporal evolution of the water and energy budgets in the snow cover and their effect on soil temperature. Here, we present the core components of GEOtop 2.0 and demonstrate its functioning. Based on a synthetic simulation, we show that the interaction of processes represented in GEOtop 2.0 can result in phenomena that are significant and relevant for applications involving permafrost and seasonally frozen soils, both in high altitude and latitude regions.

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Journal Geoscientific Model Development
Endrizzi, S. (S.), Gruber, S, Dall'Amico, M. (M.), & Rigon, R. (R.). (2014). GEOtop 2.0: Simulating the combined energy and water balance at and below the land surface accounting for soil freezing, snow cover and terrain effects. Geoscientific Model Development, 7(6), 2831–2857. doi:10.5194/gmd-7-2831-2014