Life history of the fungus gnat macrocera nobilis in american caves (Diptera: Mycetophilidae)
The Canadian Entomologist , Volume 108 - Issue 11 p. 1235- 1241
The mycetophilid Macrocera nobilis Johnson, previously known only from forests in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, is here reported from caves in Oklahoma, Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, and West Virginia. A study of populations in Oklahoma shows that the short-lived adults mate in cave entrances, but that oviposition, larval development, and pupation occur only in the dark zone of caves. The larvae build extensive webs upon which they travel and which they use to capture insect prey (mostly other Diptera). Reproduction and life cycle development is not seasonal. The larval stage lasts 9 or 10 months, and the pupal stage about 2 weeks.
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Peck, S, & Russell, D.R. (Donald R.). (1976). Life history of the fungus gnat macrocera nobilis in american caves (Diptera: Mycetophilidae). The Canadian Entomologist, 108(11), 1235–1241. doi:10.4039/Ent1081235-11