The treatment of convective heat transfer at internal building surfaces has a significant impact on the simulation of heat and air flow. Accurate approaches for the range of flow regimes experienced within buildings (buoyant flow adjacent to walls, buoyant plumes rising from radiators, fan-driven flows, etc.) are required, as is the ability to select an appropriate method for the case at hand and to adapt modelling to changes in the flow. A new approach - drawing upon previously published methods - has been developed for modelling mixed convection within mechanically ventilated rooms. It is applicable for rooms ventilated with ceiling mounted diffusers and is appropriate for both heating and cooling. ESP-r simulations performed with the mixed flow model indicate that the prediction of heating and cooling loads is highly sensitive to the treatment of surface convection and that significant errors can result if an inappropriate model is employed. The results also reveal that the choice of convection algorithm can influence design decisions drawn from a simulation-based analysis.

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Journal Energy and Buildings
Beausoleil-Morrison, I. (2001). Algorithm for calculating convection coefficients for internal building surfaces for the case of mixed flow in rooms. Energy and Buildings, 33(4), 351–361. doi:10.1016/S0378-7788(00)00117-1