This preliminary simulation study investigates the application of retrofitting roof-mounted solar photovoltaic (PV) modules to a community of 50 single-detached dwellings located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Natural gas was used to supply space heating and domestic hot water to 90% of the dwellings. Detailed simulations of both the dwellings and PV systems were carried out in the simulation tool ESP-r. Dwelling model parameters were sourced from the Canadian Single-Detached and Double/Row Database developed by Swan et al. (2009). Annual energy performance was evaluated in terms of site and source net-zero definitions. Two different PV generation capacities were investigated: 2.5 kW and 9 kW per dwellings. Neither upgrade was able to achieve site or source net-zero. For the 9 kW case, the community southern-facing roof- Area was saturated with PV, and capacity still needed to be increased by an additional 356% and 578% to achieve site and source net-zero, respectively.

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Conference 14th Conference of International Building Performance Simulation Association, BS 2015
Wills, A. (Adam), Beausoleil-Morrison, I, & Ugursal, V.I. (V. Ismet). (2015). A preliminary study of upgrading an existing canadian community to source net-zero using building simulation. In 14th International Conference of IBPSA - Building Simulation 2015, BS 2015, Conference Proceedings (pp. 2663–2670).