Athermal operation of Silicon waveguides: Spectral, second order and footprint dependencies
We report the design criteria and performance of Si ring resonators for passive athermal applications in wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). The waveguide design rules address i) positivenegative thermo-optic (TO) composite structures, ii) resonant wavelength dependent geometry to achieve constant confinement factor (Γ) and iii) observation of small residual second order effects. We develop exact design requirements for a temperature dependent resonant wavelength shift (TDWS) of 0 pm/K and present prototype TDWS performance of 0.5pm/K. We evaluate the materials selection tradeoffs between high-index contrast (HIC) and low-index contrast (LIC) systems and show, remarkably, that FSR and footprint become comparable under the constraint of athermal design.
Raghunathan, V. (Vivek), Ye, W.N, Hu, J. (Juejun), Izuhara, T. (Tomoyuki), Michel, J. (Jurgen), & Kimerling, L. (Lionel). (2010). Athermal operation of Silicon waveguides: Spectral, second order and footprint dependencies. Optics Express, 18(17), 17631–17639. doi:10.1364/OE.18.017631