Although estimation of average blood pressure is commonly done with oscillometric measurements, confidence intervals (CIs) for systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) are not usually estimated. This paper adopts bootstrap methodologies to build CI from a small sample set of measurements, which is a situation commonly encountered in practice. Three bootstrap methodologies, namely, nonparametric percentile bootstrap, standard bootstrap, and bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap are investigated. A two-step methodology is proposed based on pseudomeasurements using bootstrap principles to first derive the pseudomaximum amplitudes and then the pseudoenvelopes (PEs). The SBP and DBP are estimated using the new relationships between mean cuff pressure and PE and then the CIs for such estimates are obtained. In order to reduce the amount of processing, a single-step methodology that directly derives PE using bootstrap principles is also presented. Application of the proposed methodology on an experimental data set of 85 patients with five sets of measurements for each patient has yielded a narrower CI than the currently available conventional methods such as Student's t-distribution method.

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IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement
Department of Systems and Computer Engineering

Lee, S. (Soojeong), Bolic, M. (Miodrag), Groza, V.Z. (Voicu Z.), Dajani, H.R. (Hilmi R.), & Rajan, S. (2011). Confidence interval estimation for oscillometric blood pressure measurements using bootstrap approaches. In IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement (Vol. 60, pp. 3405–3415). doi:10.1109/TIM.2011.2161926