Standard multi-label learning methods assume fully labeled training data. This assumption however is impractical in many application domains where labels are difficult to collect and missing labels are prevalent. In this paper, we develop a novel conditional restricted Boltzmann machine model to address multi-label learning with incomplete labels. It uses a restricted Boltzmann machine to capture the high-order label dependence relationships in the output space, aiming to enhance the capacity of recovering missing labels and learning high quality multi-label prediction models. Moreover, it also incorporates label co-occurrence information retrieved from auxiliary resources as prior knowledge. We perform model training by maximizing the regularized marginal conditional likelihood of the label vectors given the input features, and develop a Viterbi style EM algorithm to solve the induced optimization problem. The proposed approach is evaluated on four real word multi-label data sets by comparing to a number of state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show it outperforms all the other comparison methods across the applied data sets.

Journal of Machine Learning Research
School of Computer Science

Li, X. (Xin), Zhao, F. (Feipeng), & Guo, Y. (2015). Conditional restricted boltzmann machines for multi-label learning with incomplete labels. In Journal of Machine Learning Research (Vol. 38, pp. 635–643).