Despite greater understanding and improved management, seizures continue to be a major problem in childhood. Neonatal seizures are often refractory to conventional antiepileptic drugs, and can result in later life epilepsy and cognitive deficits, conditions for which there are no specific treatments. Hypoxic and/or ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is the most common cause for neonatal seizures, and accounts for more than two-thirds of neonatal seizure cases. A better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms is essential for identifying new therapeutic strategies that control the neonatal seizures and its cognitive consequences. This heavily relies on animal models that play a critical role in discovering novel mechanisms underlying both epileptogenesis and associated cognitive impairments. To date, a number of animal models have provided a tremendous amount of information regarding the pathophysiology of HIE-induced neonatal seizures. This review provides an overview on the most important features of the main animal models of HIE-induced seizures. In particular, we focus on the methodology of seizure induction and the characterizations of post-HIE injury consequences. These aspects of HIE-induced seizure models are discussed in the light of the suitability of these models in studying human HIE-induced seizures.

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Keywords Animal model, EEG, Hypoxia/ischemia, Learning, Memory, Neonatal seizure, Social, Synaptic plasticity
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Journal Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Sun, H, Juul, H.M. (Halvor M.), & Jensen, F.E. (Frances E.). (2016). Models of hypoxia and ischemia-induced seizures. Journal of Neuroscience Methods (Vol. 260, pp. 252–260). doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2015.09.023