MAPK signal transduction modules play crucial roles in regulating many biological processes in plants, and their components are encoded by highly conserved genes. The recent availability of genome sequences for rice and poplar now makes it possible to examine how well the previously described Arabidopsis MAPK and MAPKK gene family structures represent the broader evolutionary situation in plants, and analysis of gene expression data for MPK and MKK genes in all three species allows further refinement of those families, based on functionality. The Arabidopsis MAPK nomenclature appears sufficiently robust to allow it to be usefully extended to other well-characterized plant systems. Crown Copyright

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Journal Trends in Plant Science
Hamel, L.-P. (Louis-Philippe), Nicole, M.-C. (Marie-Claude), Sritubtim, S. (Somrudee), Morency, M.-J. (Marie-Josée), Ellis, M. (Margaret), Ehlting, J. (Juergen), … Ellis, B.E. (Brian E.). (2006). Ancient signals: comparative genomics of plant MAPK and MAPKK gene families. Trends in Plant Science (Vol. 11, pp. 192–198). doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2006.02.007