The problem of force-reflecting teleoperation over Internet protocol networks is addressed. The existence of time-varying communication delay and the possibility of data losses are taken into consideration. Since significant data loss may result in discontinuity of the reference trajectory transmitted through the communication channel, the proposed control scheme includes a filter that provides a smooth approximation of a possibly discontinuous reference trajectory. The stability of the overall system is guaranteed by a version of the input-to-output stable small-gain theorem for functional differential equations. If the communication delay in the forward channel is an "approximately smooth" function of time, the proposed scheme guarantees that the slave manipulator tracks the delayed trajectory of the master within a prescribed small error.

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Keywords Force-reflecting teleoperation, Stability, Time delay
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Journal IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics
Polushin, I.G. (Ilia G.), Liu, P, & Lung, C.H. (2006). A control scheme for stable force-reflecting teleoperation over IP networks. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics, 36(4), 930–939. doi:10.1109/TSMCB.2005.861878