A two-dimensional two-layer mathematical model is described representing internal gravity waves and convection generated by a thermal forcing in the lower atmosphere. The model consists of an upper layer with stable stratification, a lower layer with unstable stratification, and a thermal forcing in the form of a nonhomogeneous term in the energy conservation equation. Exact analytical solutions are derived for some simple configurations. Depending on the vertical location and depth of the thermal forcing, the model can be used to represent different configurations in which gravity waves are generated by diabatic heating. When the thermal forcing is centered in the lower layer, convective cells are generated in the lower layer, and gravity waves are forced and propagate upward from the interface between the two layers. When the thermal forcing is centered at the interface, the convection in the lower layer is weaker, and gravity waves are forced by the direct effect of the thermal forcing in the upper layer and the influence of the convective cells below. Steady-amplitude solutions for the vertical profile of the gravity waves and convection are derived and generalized to include cases where there is a spectrum of horizontal wavenumbers or vertical wavenumbers or frequencies present.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Atmosphere, Convection, Differential equations, Internal waves
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-17-0056.1
Journal Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
Citation
Sayed, A.A.M. (A. A.M.), & Campbell, L. (2018). A two-layer model for steady-amplitude gravity waves and convection generated by a thermal forcing. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, 75(7), 2199–2216. doi:10.1175/JAS-D-17-0056.1