However, for all types of charged particles of concern here, ionization of the target atoms is the dominant mode of excitation of the detection medium. This process is also the main source of radiation damage in biological tissue.
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Armitage, J.C, Dixit, M.S. (Madhu S.), Dubeau, J. (Jacques), Mes, H. (Hans), & Gerald Oakham, F. (F.). (2017). Charged-particle measurement. In Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook: Spatial, Mechanical, Thermal, and Radiation Measurement, Second Edition (pp. 82‐1–82‐21). doi:10.1201/b15474