The present study explores the theory and, to the greatest degree possible given the limitations of the data, the reality of aboriginal participation in what may be defined as 'organized crime' in Canada, engaging the possibility of a definition of 'aboriginal organized crime' and the proposal of a 'typology' of participants. In the development of both the definition and typology, the researchers build upon Beare's definition of organized crime to include the dimension of motivations-whether social, political or economic-which theorists agree are crucial in understanding organized crime activities, but which do not appear in current definitions of the term, as well as important contextual factors informing participation in aboriginal organized crime networks.
Trends in Organized Crime
Department of Law and Legal Studies

Dickson-Gilmore, J, & Whitehead, C. (Chris). (2002). Aboriginal organized crime in Canada: Developing a typology for understanding and strategizing responses. Trends in Organized Crime, 7(4), 3–28. doi:10.1007/s12117-002-1002-5