Objective To demonstrate a method to calculate phase amplitude coupling (PAC) quickly and robustly for realtime applications. Methods We designed and implemented a multirate PAC algorithm with efficient filter bank processing and efficient computation of PAC for many frequency-pair combinations. We tested the developed algorithm for computing PAC on simulated data and on intraoperative neural recording data obtained during deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode implantation surgery. Results A combination of parallelized frequency-domain filtering and modulation index for PAC estimation provided robust results that could be calculated in real time on modest computing hardware. Conclusion The standard methods for calculating PAC can be optimized for quick and robust performance. Significance These results demonstrated that PAC can be extracted in real time and is suitable for neurofeedback applications.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0204260
Journal PLoS ONE
Citation
Chao-Chia Lu, D. (David), Boulay, C. (Chadwick), Chan, A, & Sachs, A.J. (Adam J.). (2018). Realtime phase-amplitude coupling analysis of micro electrode recorded brain signals. PLoS ONE, 13(9). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0204260