This empirical study examines the innovation process within the defence environment from two perspectives, namely the users' (the military) and the producers' (industry). Unlike commercial innovations, in defence innovations the users play a more direct role and consequently have more control over the process. The premise of the study is that the lack of cooperation and conflict situations between users and producers have had devastating effects on the innovation process in terms of time and cost. Based on the data collected from 85 executives from 75 Canadian defence firms, ten domains of interaction between the two players are identified. The possible issues affecting innovation time and cost in each of these domains have been highlighted, and recommendations have been made on how to resolve these issues.
Sprott School of Business

Kumar, V, Persaud, A.N.S. (Aditha N.S.), & Kumar, U. (1994). On improving the efficiency of the defence innovation process: an empirical framework. Technovation, 14(5), 311–321. doi:10.1016/0166-4972(94)90074-4