Prothorax lateral edges almost always complete. Procoxae more or less contiguous, and trochantins either exposed or concealed, their cavities widely to narrowly open posteriorly and usually closed internally. Mesocoxae narrowly separated in most species. Elytra almost entire, concealing the abdomen completely, occasionally one or two abdominal terga exposed; epipleura usually well-developed but seldom complete. Metepisterna sometimes concealed by elytral epipleura. Metacoxae usually contiguous, either not excavate or with very slight plates mesally; sometimes the posterior face vertical, so that the metasternum and abdomen are on different planes; metacoxae usually extending laterally to meet elytra. Tarsi variable; usually 5-5-5; sometimes 44-4, 3-3-3, or heteromerous (5-5-4, 5-4-4). Basal tarsomeres of protarsi usually expanded in males, and narrow in females.