Background: Numerous studies have examined associations between air pollution and pregnancy outcomes, but most have been restricted to urban populations living near monitors. Objectives: We examined the association between pregnancy outcomes and fine particulate matter in a large national study including urban and rural areas. Methods: Analyses were based on approximately 3 million singleton live births in Canada between 1999 and 2008. Exposures to PM2.5 (particles of median aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) were assigned by mapping the mother’s postal code to a monthly surface based on a national land use regression model that incorporated observations from fixed-site monitoring stations and satellitederived estimates of PM2.5. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the association between PM2.5 and preterm birth (gestational age < 37 weeks), term low birth weight (< 2,500 g), small for gestational age (SGA; < 10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age), and term birth weight, adjusting for individual covariates and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). Results: In fully adjusted models, a 10-μg/m3 increase in PM2.5 over the entire pregnancy was associated with SGA (odds ratio = 1.04; 95% CI 1.01, 1.07) and reduced term birth weight (-20.5 g; 95% CI -24.7, -16.4). Associations varied across subgroups based on maternal place of birth and period (1999-2003 vs. 2004-2008). Conclusions: This study, based on approximately 3 million births across Canada and employing PM2.5 estimates from a national spatiotemporal model, provides further evidence linking PM2.5 and pregnancy outcomes.

doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408995
Environmental Health Perspectives
Spatial Determinants of Health Lab

Stieb, D.M. (David M.), Chen, L. (Li), Beckerman, B.S. (Bernardo S.), Jerrett, M. (Michael), Crouse, D.L. (Daniel L.), Omariba, D.W.R. (D. Walter Rasugu), … Dugandzic, R.M. (Rose M.). (2016). Associations of pregnancy outcomes and PM2.5 in a national Canadian study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 124(2), 243–249. doi:10.1289/ehp.1408995