In recent years, Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a model for studies on aluminum toxicity. The current study aimed to disclose the mechanisms of aluminum toxicity in D. melanogaster at larval and adult stages and examined the potential protective effects of dietary alpha-ketoglutarate (AKG). Flies were reared on food containing 10 mM AlCl3, 10 mM AKG or both additives. Rearing on an AlCl3-containing diet induced behavioral defects, and decreased fecundity and long-term survival of female flies. The addition of dietary AKG did not ameliorate locomotor and taste behavior defects or the higher sensitivity to oxidative stress, but improved heat stress resistance, egg-laying capability and survival of females treated with AlCl3. Metabolic effects of AlCl3 exposure on flies included an imbalance of metal content, decreased glucose levels, increased free iron and storage triacylglyceride (TAG) levels, mitochondria dysfunction, and the development of oxidative stress. Dietary AKG did not prevent AlCl3 effects on glucose and TAG, but improved metal homeostasis, inhibited the increase in free Fe and restored the functional activity of iron-containing enzymes such as aconitase. In addition, AKG decreased the intensity of oxidative stress seen in AlCl3-reared adult flies, probably due to inhibition of iron mobilization. The results show that AKG is not a full antidote against Al toxicity but is able to relieve multiple metabolic effects of high aluminum. Furthermore, the modulating ability of AKG can clearly be helpful in exploring the molecular mechanisms of Al toxicity.

Antioxidant, Fecundity, Mitochondrial dysfunction, Oxidative stress, Pupation, Survival, Triacylglycerides
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology
Department of Biology

Bayliak, M.M. (Maria M.), Lylyk, M.P. (Maria P.), Gospodaryov, D.V. (Dmytro V.), Kotsyubynsky, V.O. (Volodymyr O.), Butenko, N.V. (Nataliia V.), Storey, K, & Lushchak, V.I. (Volodymyr I.). (2019). Protective effects of alpha-ketoglutarate against aluminum toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - C Toxicology and Pharmacology, 217, 41–53. doi:10.1016/j.cbpc.2018.11.020