This longitudinal study examined the relationship between schooling, literacy development, and socioeconomic context, as reflected by a composite measure of socioeconomic status (SES). Reading, spelling, and phonological abilities were assessed from kindergarten to grade three in Canadian children in a school district with intensive literacy activities. In kindergarten, there were significant associations between SES and all the abilities assessed but these associations declined systematically to non-significant levels by grade three. Risk and prevalence of reading failure also decreased with more schooling. The results suggest that the attenuation of the association between SES and literacy-related skills, and the progressive reduction of the risk for reading failure, were positive outcomes associated with the literacy school program, especially in the early grades.
Educational Psychology
Department of Neuroscience

D'Angiulli, A, Siegel, L.S. (Linda S.), & Hertzman, C. (Clyde). (2004). Schooling, socioeconomic context and literacy development. Educational Psychology, 24(6), 867–883. doi:10.1080/0144341042000271746