When politicians use ethnic identity to mobilize support, why are they frequently successful? Why do ethnic security dilemmas develop in states even when the government still exists? When we say that ethnopolitical competition has a variety of consequences, what do we mean by competition? These are related questions, and they are necessary for understanding the sources of the disintegrations of the Yugoslav, Soviet, and Czechoslovak federations. These three states broke apart almost simultaneously through very similar political processes. By analyzing these processes, we can predict whether other states will disintegrate and what outsiders can do to influence these dynamics.

Nationalism and Ethnic Politics

Saideman, S.M. (1996). The dual dynamics of disintegration: ethnic politics and security dilemmas in Eastern Europe. Nationalism and Ethnic Politics, 2(1), 18–43. doi:10.1080/13537119608428457