Using near-infrared videotaping we measured the nocturnal flight times of six species of eared moths (Amphipyra pyramidoides Guenée, Caenurgina erechtea (Cramer), Feltia jaculifera (Guenée), Phlogophora periculosa Guenée, Lymantria dispar (Linné), and Ennomos magnaria Guenée) in cages in which they flew, under randomized conditions, for 3 h in the absence and 3 h in the presence of simulated bat-attack sounds. When exposed to the ultrasound, four of the six species exhibited significant reductions in total flight time ranging from 38 to 98%. We suggest that this quantified measurement of flight time will be useful for fundamental studies on the evolution and ecology of moth hearing as well as applied studies on acoustic methods of controlling moth pests.

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Journal Canadian Journal of Zoology
Fullard, J.H. (J. H.), Muma, K.E. (K. E.), & Dawson, J.W. (2003). Quantifying an anti-bat flight response by eared moths. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 81(3), 395–399. doi:10.1139/z03-019