As citizens of a small, relatively open economy, Canadian women have long been conscious of the ways in which their economic and political opportunities are buffeted by the forces of the global economy. Since the mid-1980s, however, Canada has undergone a dramatic intensification of its ties with the United States. Already heavily linked with the United States both economically and culturally, Canada’s level of integration has increased quite dramatically in recent years as a result of the signing of the Canada–U.S. Free Trade Agreement (CUFTA), which came into effect in 1989, and the subsequent North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1994. Globalization thus takes a specific form in Canada—the importance of Canadian economic ties with other parts of the world has reduced in recent years, while relations with the United States have assumed ever-greater economic and political importance. For Canada, globalization primarily means growing interaction with and integration into the U.S. economy, not greater globalism. Canadians’ ambivalent relationship with the U.S. hegemon dominates much of the nation’s history and has helped shape Canadian national identity.

Foreign Direct Investment, Gross Domestic Product, Immigrant Woman, Free Trade Agreement, North American Free Trade Agreement
978-1-4039-7715-1
dx.doi.org/10.1057/9781403977151_6
Women, Democracy, and Globalization in North America
Institute of Political Economy

Macdonald, L. (2006). Globalization and Gender in Canada. In Women, Democracy, and Globalization in North America (pp. 131–143). doi:10.1057/9781403977151_6