The effects of hyperoxia on the status of antioxidant defenses and markers of oxidative damage were evaluated in goldfish tissues. The levels of lipid peroxides, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, carbonyl proteins and the activities of some antioxidant enzymes were measured in brain, liver, kidney and skeletal muscle of goldfish, Carassius auratus L., over a time course of 3-12 h of hyperoxia exposure followed by 12 or 36 h of normoxic recovery. Exposure to high oxygen resulted in an accumulation of protein carbonyls in tissues throughout hyperoxia and recovery whereas lipid peroxides and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances accumulated transiently under short-term hyperoxia stress (3-6 h) but were then strongly reduced. This suggests that hyperoxia stimulated an enhancement of defenses against lipid peroxidation or mechanisms for enhancing the catabolism of peroxidation products. The activities of principal antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, were not altered under hyperoxia but catalase increased during normoxic recovery; activities may rise in anticipation of further hyperoxic excursions. In most tissues, the activities of glutathione-utilizing enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase) as well as glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, were not affected under hyperoxia but increased sharply during normoxic recovery. Correlations between some enzyme activities and oxidative stress markers were found, for example, an inverse correlation was seen between levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and glutathione-S-transferase activity in liver and catalase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in kidney. The results suggest that liver glutathione-S-transferase plays an important role in detoxifying end products of lipid peroxidation accumulated under hyperoxia stress.

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International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology
Department of Biology

Lushchak, V.I. (Volodymyr I.), Bagnyukova, T.V. (Tetyana V.), Husak, V.V. (Victor V.), Luzhna, L.I. (Lidiya I.), Lushchak, O.V. (Oleh V.), & Storey, K. (2005). Hyperoxia results in transient oxidative stress and an adaptive response by antioxidant enzymes in goldfish tissues. International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, 37(8), 1670–1680. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2005.02.024