Any socialism has two important projects: (1) to understand and end present-day oppression and (2) to build, in imagination and reality, a future that realizes socialist society with socialist values. Each form of socialism has its own ways to approach these projects and to understand the attendant issues and aspects. Sometimes the differences seem vast, while in a more cooperative outlook, there are similarities and opportunities for convergence. Karl Marx and Michael Bakunin and their successors have dealt with various issues in contrasting ways. This chapter attempts to show that the two streams have overlapping perspectives and approaches that when investigated can be enriching and supportive rather than divisive and debilitating, which enriches any retrieval of Marx.

Marx, Engels, and Marxisms
Department of Philosophy

Ware, R.X. (2019). Two projects of socialism. In Marx on Emancipation and Socialist Goals (pp. 223–245). doi:10.1007/978-3-319-97716-4_12