The rapid expansion of Decision and Negotiation Support Systems has been built mainly on decision-theoretic approaches. This has resulted in the decision maker being viewed through the lens of the problem. In this article, the focus is on the decision maker's view of the problem. Three levels of problem articulation are described. Special emphasis is placed on the needs level and the implications it carries for the cognitive and instrumental levels. The three levels of articulation, the organizational model of making decision in social settings, and the three basic approaches to decision making form the basis for computer support focused on understanding and change rather than preferences and outcomes. We argue that in the dynamic, interactive context characteristic of negotiations, a cognitive support system based on restructurable modeling provides a richer basis for support.

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Keywords Cognitive support, Conflict resolution, Decision making, Decision support, Negotiation support, Negotiations, Rationality, Restructurable modeling
Journal Group Decision and Negotiation
Kersten, G.E. (Gregory E.), & Cray, D. (1996). Perspectives on representation and analysis of negotiation: Towards cognitive support systems. Group Decision and Negotiation, 5(4-6), 433–467.