Preliminary cross-sectional evidence suggests that future time perspective (FTP) is associated with dispositional gratitude, but research on daily perceptions of FTP and their relations to daily gratitude is lacking. In this study, we addressed this gap by examining how FTP and gratitude jointly unfold in daily life and how these relations vary within and across individuals. A micro-longitudinal design (N = 331, adults aged 18–77) with daily assessments over two workweeks was employed to examine the relations between gratitude and two components of FTP (remaining opportunities and time). Three important results from random intercepts cross-lagged panel models stand out. First, we found evidence for within-person day-to-day carry-over effects in FTP and gratitude. Second, FTP and gratitude were systematically related within and across individuals. Third, age and dispositional forms of FTP and gratitude predicted between-person differences in FTP and gratitude in daily life. Finally, exploratory multilevel analyses have shown that the associations between daily FTP and gratitude vary across ages at the between-person level but not at the within-person level. Overall, these findings advance our understanding of perceptions of FTP in daily life and their associations with gratitude in adulthood.

future time perspective, gratitude, micro-longitudinal study, within-person processes in daily life
European Journal of Personality
Department of Psychology

Allemand, M. (Mathias), & Hill, P.L. (2019). Future Time Perspective and Gratitude in Daily Life: A Micro-longitudinal Study. European Journal of Personality. doi:10.1002/per.2201