In numerous epileptic model systems, endogenous norepinephrine (NE) has profound effects upon epileptogenesis, particularly in the limbic system. In this article, we review the evidence supporting this statement. NE has been shown consistently to suppress the development of epileptic networks, yet to have little impact on seizure thresholds. That is, once the epileptic network has been developed, NE appears to have relatively little further efficacy in altering network behavior. These observations suggest a profound effect of NE on the initial mechanisms supporting neuroplasticity; once neuroplastic changes have been made in network performance, NE has reduced impact on the future expression of those changes.

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Keywords 6-Hydroxydopamine lesions, Amygdala, Epileptogenesis, Generalized seizures, Hippocampus, Kindling, Limbic system, Microdialysis, Norepinephrine, Partial, Receptor subtypes (γ1, 2, and β)
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McIntyre, D.C. (2009). Neurotransmitter Function: Impact of Norepinephrine on Epileptogenesis. In Encyclopedia of Basic Epilepsy Research (pp. 887–891). doi:10.1016/B978-012373961-2.00236-8