Background: Accurate detection and localization of prostate cancer (PCa) in men undergoing prostate MRI is a fundamental step for future targeted prostate biopsies and treatment planning. Fully automated localization of peripheral zone (PZ) PCa using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map might be clinically useful. Purpose/Hypothesis: To describe automated localization of PCa in the PZ on ADC map MR images using an ensemble U-Net-based model. Study Type: Retrospective, case–control. Population: In all, 226 patients (154 and 72 patients with and without clinically significant PZ PCa, respectively), training, and testing was performed using dataset images of 146 and 80 patients, respectively. Field Strength: 3T, ADC maps. Sequence: ADC map. Assessment: The ground truth was established by manual delineation of the prostate and prostate PZ tumors on ADC maps by dedicated radiologists using MRI-radical prostatectomy maps as a reference standard. Statistical Tests: Performance of the ensemble model was evaluated using Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), sensitivity, and specificity metrics on a per-slice basis. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC) were employed as well. The paired t-test was used to test the differences between the performances of constituent networks of the ensemble model. Results: Our developed algorithm yielded DSC, sensitivity, and specificity of 86.72% ± 9.93%, 85.76% ± 23.33%, and 76.44% ± 23.70%, respectively (mean ± standard deviation) on 80 test cases consisting of 41 and 39 instances from patients with and without clinically significant tumors including 660 extracted 2D slices. AUC was reported as 0.779. Data Conclusion: An ensemble U-Net-based approach can accurately detect and segment PCa in the PZ from ADC map MR prostate images. Level of Evidence: 4. Technical Efficacy: Stage 1. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019.

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Keywords ADC map MR images, ensemble learning model, prostate cancer (PCa), prostate peripheral zone (PZ), U-Net
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.26913
Journal Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Citation
Zabihollahy, F. (Fatemeh), Ukwatta, E.M, Krishna, S. (Satheesh), & Schieda, N. (Nicola). (2019). Fully automated localization of prostate peripheral zone tumors on apparent diffusion coefficient map MR images using an ensemble learning method. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. doi:10.1002/jmri.26913