This paper presents a series of simplified methods for analysing the steady-state steering response of various types of articulated vehicle including tractor-semitrailers, truck-full trailers, and the so-called "B-trains". The effects on steering response of certain design parameters, tire cornering stiffness, and axle arrangements (tandem vs. single) are examined. Based on the analysis, a new parameter called "Tandem Axle Factor" is introduced to define the effects on the articulation angle of installing tandem axle in a trailer (or dolly). The prime objective of this paper is to provide vehicle designers and users with a convenient and simple means for evaluating the steering response of various types of articulated vehicle in steady-state turns, and with guiding principles for selecting an appropriate vehicle configuration and its design parameters from the directional stability standpoint.

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Journal SAE Technical Papers
Ei-Gindy, M. (M.), & Wong, J.Y. (1985). Steering response of articulated vehicles in steady-state turns. In SAE Technical Papers. doi:10.4271/852335