Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to create and validate a scale that measures consumer xenocentrism in developing countries, where this phenomenon is furthermost prevalent. This study aimed for the conceptualization, construct development and validation of a new scale labeled X-Scale. The theoretical framework was based on the theories of social comparison, system justification and culture. Design/methodology/approach: This study employed a mixed-method and multi-stage research approach to investigate the domain of xenocentrism in the context of consumer behavior and subsequently develop a scale (X-Scale), while assessing its dimensionality, reliability and validity. Qualitative and quantitative techniques were used for the development of the scale. Multi-stage data from five developing countries were collected for validation purposes: Mexico, Colombia, Peru, Ecuador and China. Findings: Results indicate that the consumer xenocentrism construct has two dimensions: foreign admiration and domestic rejection. Each dimension is comprised of five items. The reliability tests, the goodness-of-fit measures and the psychometric properties indicate a reliable construct. In addition, this study shows that consumer xenocentrism is a key predictor of consumers’ preferences for foreign brands over domestic ones. Originality/value: This is the first empirical study on consumer xenocentrism conducted in several developing countries. The X-Scale developed here is invariant across countries and, therefore, allows for comparison among them.

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Marketing Intelligence and Planning
Sprott School of Business

Rojas-Mendez, J, & Chapa, S. (Sindy). (2019). X-Scale: a new scale to measure consumer xenocentrism. Marketing Intelligence and Planning. doi:10.1108/MIP-01-2019-0062