A Si1-xGex pin optical waveguide modulator operating at a wavelength of λ=1.3 μm was designed and demonstrated. The free carrier absorption by carriers injected into the i region under high forward bias was used to attenuate the guided mode intensity. Numerical simulations indicate that this structure can operate at speeds up to 200 MHz. A maximum modulation depth of 85% was measured for a 2 mm long waveguide using a peak modulation current of 4200 A cm-2.

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Journal Canadian Journal of Physics
Fernando, C., Janz, S., Normandin, R., Noël, J.P., Tarr, N.G, & Wight, J. S. (1996). Optical waveguide intensity modulator in silicon, based on carrier injection in a Si1-xGex pin heterostructure. Canadian Journal of Physics, 74.