The growing presence of street gangs in Canada is raising the concern of law enforcement officials across the country. In particular, the relationship between street gangs and organized crime groups is increasingly being seen as a cause for concern. Canada is experiencing many of the phenomena identified by American researchers studying gang activity in that country. Gang migration, the proliferation of street gangs, increased gang violence, the appearance of transnational gangs and the recruitment of street gang members in the prison system are all occurring in Canada. While primarily still an urban problem, street gangs in some regions have begun to penetrate rural areas with typically negative consequences. This study revealed that street gangs can be linked to organized crime groups in a number of ways. However, some respondents noted that street gangs can also be independent criminal enterprises in their own right. These street gangs employ sophisticated methods and engage in complex criminal activities. The respondents indicated that these types of street gangs should be identified and treated as organized crime groups.

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Journal Journal of Gang Research
Citation
Kelly, K, & Caputo, T. (2005). The linkages between street gangs and organized crime: The Canadian experience. Journal of Gang Research (Vol. 13, pp. 17–31).