Progress in graphene-based optical and electrochemical aptasensors
Aptamers are ssDNA/RNA that can bind to specific targets with high affinity and selectivity. Graphene is a single-atom-thick two-dimensional carbon material that exhibits extraordinary properties including fast energy and electron transfer rates, excellent electrical and thermal conductivity, large surface area, and biocompatibility. Due to their low cost, stability, and ease of synthesis and modification, aptamers are often used as molecular recognition probes in biosensors. The combination of graphene and aptamer technology will generate new simple, sensitive, reusable, and efficient optical and electrochemical graphene-based aptasensors for bioanalysis. As there has been an extremely rapid development of graphene aptasensors as signal readout platforms in recent years, it is appropriate to highlight the progress and advantages of these emerging aptasensors. In this review, the mechanisms and paradigms of FRET (Forster resonance energy transfer), impedimetric, amperometric, electrochemiluminescence, and FET (field effect transistors) graphene aptasensors will be described. Future prospects in the development of graphene aptasensors will also be highlighted.
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Zhang, X. (Xueru), Zhang, Y. (Yong), & DeRosa, M.C. (2016). Progress in graphene-based optical and electrochemical aptasensors. In Surface Chemistry of Nanobiomaterials: Applications of Nanobiomaterials (pp. 393–431). doi:10.1016/B978-0-323-42861-3.00013-3