Novel vertical directional couplers, consisting of graded-index planar waveguides, were realised by field-assisted K+-ion exchange in glass. Normal mode measurements of the coupling length are compared to results based on numerical simulations of the diffusion equation and the beam propagation method.

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Journal Electronics Letters
Albert, J, Noutsis, P.C., & Yip, G.L. (Gar Lam). (1992). Novel vertical directional coupler made by field-assisted ion-exchanged slab waveguides in glass. Electronics Letters. doi:10.1049/el:19920851