The Neo-institutionalism, which has argued for the importance of institutions in explaining differences in economic performance, can be credited for legitimizing the subject of corruption within the broader agenda of public choice. In the process, human rights are undermined because corruption requires secrecy and the suppression of worker rights, such as lack of collective bargaining, freedom of association and other forms of violations of worker rights. Countries with better economic performances have been countries that have introduced a variety of wealth-sharing mechanisms in line with worker rights and the protection of vulnerable groups. With regards to industrialization and trade promotion, any rent-creation at the expense of worker rights constitutes an attempt to create comparative advantages by exploiting workers. As in the West, Japanese workers enjoy labour rights and, in the process, derive higher earnings and better working conditions.