Since 2001, the United States has made major military interventions in Afghanistan, Iraq and Libya, as leader of the anti-Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) coalition. Now, it is possible to compare the full scope of the Bush and Obama presidencies. Accordingly, this article will address patterns of continuity and change in approaches to American military intervention between 2001 and 2016. It asks two questions: What are the patterns of continuity and discontinuity in military intervention since September 11? And what do these patterns suggest about the future of American military interventions? In general, there is far more continuity than not in post-September 11 military interventions with regard to patterns of presidential commitments to domestic law, international institutions and multilateralism. The article then addresses major implications of American interventionism and what it portends in the age of Donald Trump.

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Canadian Foreign Policy Journal
Norman Paterson School of International Affairs

Ettinger, A. (2017). The patterns and implications of American military interventions in the post-September 11 era. Canadian Foreign Policy Journal, 23(3), 205–217. doi:10.1080/11926422.2017.1341842