The Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate (CID) was launched by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching to better prepare doctoral graduates for research and employment. Research rotations where incoming grad students work for several weeks in a series of laboratories before officially selecting a mentor, may help student to choose the right mentor, streamlining expectations can help to make generalizations about how to improve doctoral programs for students, where prospective students can be given a list of expectations so the students realize the commitment required in the graduate school. A graduate-student-run shadowing program can be designed to help new graduate students meet advanced students. Several schools are also instituting seminar series given by people with careers outside research. Professional development is also promoted by encouraging students to participate in internships during their Ph.D. years.