The German 'habilitation' or 'permanent professorships' provide a permanent academic career into the German universities. The habilitation or permanent professorship is granted after completing Ph.D. under the assistance of a senior professor. A habilitands need to spend four-eight years for research, write a postdoctoral thesis, and defends it before a committee of senior professors. A habilitands can do his/her own research and teach graduate students along with habilitands degree. After completing habilitation the habilitands can apply for a permanent and independent positions. The federal government of Germany in 2001 introduced the concept of 'junior professor' for those without a habilitation degree. The state governments in Germany allow the junior professor position at their universities with the habilitation.