# List of scientists facts for kids

This is a **list of** noted **scientists** ordered by by nationality.

## Contents

- Afghanistan
- Albania
- Argentina
- Armenia
- Australia
- Austria
- Azerbaijan
- Bangladesh
- Belarusia
- Belgium
- Belize
- Bermuda
- Bolivia
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Brazil
- Bulgaria
- Canada
- Czechia
- Chile
- China
- Croatia
- Czechia
- Denmark
- Egypt
- Estonia
- Fiji
- France
- Finland
- Georgia
- Germany
- Great Britain
- Greece
- Guatemala
- Guyana
- Haiti
- Holland
- Honduras
- Hungary
- Iceland
- India
- India
- Indonesia
- Italy
- Iran
- Japan
- Kazakhstan
- Kosovo
- Kyrgyzstan
- Laos
- Latvia
- Macedonia
- Morocco
- Nepal
- New Zealand
- North Korea
- Norway
- Romania
- Russia
- Solomon Islands
- South Africa
- South Korea
- Sweden
- Switzerland
- Syria
- Thailand
- Tunisia
- Turkey
- Ukraine
- United States
- Vietnam
- Related pages

## Afghanistan

- Ashraf Ghani, President of Afghanistan (as of 2017); he is a scientist in the field of Anthropology
- Abdul Karim Mustaghni, was Defense Minister of Afghanistan; died in 2004

## Albania

- Ferid Murad - he has a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

## Argentina

Main pages: List of biologists and List of ecologists

- Ernesto Sabato - he got the award, Legion of Honour; his field was Physics; he died in 2011

## Armenia

- Boris Babaian - he got the awards (from the Soviet Union): the USSR State Prize for his achievements in 1974 in the field of computer-aided design, and the Lenin Prize in 1987 for the Elbrus-2 supercomputer design. Since 1984, he has been a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences (later - Russian Academy of Sciences)

## Australia

Main pages: List of biologists and List of mathematicians

- Peter C. Doherty - he got the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; his fields of science are Medicine and veterinary science.

- Peter Gavin Hall, one of only three researchers based outside of North America to win the COPSS presidents' Award; Mathematics, statistics; died in 2016

## Austria

Main page: List of biologists

- Peter M. Gruber, Fellow of the American Mathematical Society, for "contributions to the geometry of numbers and to convex and discrete geometry"; Geometric number theory, and convex and discrete geometry; died in 2017

## Azerbaijan

Main page: List of mathematicians

- Lotfi A. Zadeh - pioneer (or one of the earliest scientists) of fuzzy logic; computer scientist, electrical engineer, mathematician; d. in 2017

## Bangladesh

- Muhammed Zafar Iqbal - he has a Bangladesh National Film Awards for Best Story; he is a scholar of engineering and computer science.

## Belarusia

- Lev Vygotsky, credited for starting the concept, zone of proximal development, or ZPD, which is the difference between what a learner can do without help and what he or she cannot do; Psychology; died in 1934

## Belgium

Main page: List of biologists

## Belize

- Janet Gibson - she got the Goldman Environmental Prize in 1990; she is a zoologist (and therefore also a biologist).
- Andrea Gill - she is a former president of the Senate of Belize; biologist

## Bermuda

- Louis L. Mowbray - he successfully bred the first Galapagos tortoises and Galapagos penguins in captivity; he was a naturalist and an ornithologist; death in 1952
- David B. Wingate (He got the awards, the Queen’s Honours (UK); and (UN's) Global 500 Award)

## Bolivia

- Roberto Iván Aguilar Gómez. - minister of the Ministry of Education; economist

## Bosnia and Herzegovina

- Alojz Benac - became a corresponding member of the Yugoslav/Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts; Archeology; died in 1992.

## Brazil

Main pages: List of biologists and List of mathematicians

- Fernando Henrique Cardoso, sociologist and former President
- Adib Jatene, was Minister of Health; heart surgeon; died in 2014

- Warwick Estevam Kerr, is a member of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences, Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, and of the Third World Academy of Sciences; member of the National Order of Scientific Merit; Genetics, Biology, Agronomy, Entomology
- Fritz Müller, known for Müllerian mimicry; Evolutionary biology; died in 1897

## Bulgaria

- Lyubomir Ivanov, got the award,
*Acad. Nikola Obreshkov Prize*, the highest Bulgarian award in mathematics.; Linguistics, Mathematics

## Canada

Main page: List of biologists

## Czechia

Main page: List of biologists

## Chile

## China

Main page: List of Chinese mathematicians

- Tong Dizhou, the first to successfully clone a fish; Embryology; died in 1979

- Tu Youyou, got the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; scientist within Pharmacology

- Chien-Shiung Wu, known for the Wu experiment (en); Nuclear physics; died in 1997

- Xu Guangxian, was president of the Chinese Chemical Society; Chemistry; died in 2015
- Zhang Heng, made the first seismometer; Astronomy, engineering, meteorology, geology, philosophy, and mathematics; died in 139 A.D.

## Croatia

- Roger Joseph Boscovich, maker of a precursor of atomic theory; made the first geometric procedure for finding out the equator of a rotating planet from three observations of a surface feature and for computing the orbit of a planet from three observations of its position; discoverer of the absence of atmosphere on the Moon; he was from a city in what later became Croatia; died in 1787

## Czechia

Main page: List of biologists

- Petr Vopěnka, he developed Alternative set theory; died in 2015

## Denmark

Main page: List of biologists

## Egypt

- Ibrahim Abouleish, founder of SEKEM - an organization for biodynamic farming methods; got the Right Livelihood Award; Pharmacology; died in 2017
- Boutros Boutros-Ghali, was United Nations Secretary-General; a leading figure in the peace process between Egypt and Israel; Law; died in 2016
- Mamdouh Eldamaty, is a former Minister of Antiquities; Egyptology
- Euclid of Alexandria, known for Euclidean geometry, Euclid's
*Elements*, Euclidean algorithm; died in the middle of 3rd century BC

- Ahmed Zewail, got Nobel Prize for Chemistry; Chemistry; 2016

## Estonia

- Karl Ernst von Baer, Embryology (within Biology); died in 1876
- Madis Kõiv - he got the award, the Tuglas short story award; physicist, writer and philosopher; died in 2014

## Fiji

- Mahendra Reddy - minister of Ministry for Education, National Heritage, Culture and Arts

## France

Main pages: List of biologists and List of physicists

*See also: Category:French mathematicians*

- Jacqueline Naze Tjøtta, the first female mathematical sciences professor in Norway; Applied mathematics, she died in 2017
- Sophie Germain

## Finland

Main page: List of ecologists

## Georgia

- Tamaz V. Gamkrelidze - a former member of the Parliament of Georgia; he is an assyriologist (and therefore a linguist)
- Jamshid Giunashvili - he was a linguist (Iranologist); died in 2017

## Germany

Main page: List of biologists

*See also: Category:German mathematicians*

- Fritz Müller, known for Müllerian mimicry; Evolutionary biology; died in 1897

## Great Britain

Main page: List of biologists

### England

- Charles Babbage, credited with inventing the first mechanical computer (or analytical engine); died in 1871
- Alan Turing, he was important in the development of theoretical computer science, and is known for the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer; died in 1954

## Greece

## Guatemala

- Ricardo Bressani, one of the 42 founding members of the Third World Academy of Sciences, later known as The World Academy of Sciences; Biochemistry, Nutrition; died in 2015

## Guyana

- Opendra Narayan - he is known for engineering a type of HIV that could cause AIDS-like disease in monkeys; the veterinarian died in 2007

## Haiti

- Jean-Baptiste Chavannes - he got the Goldman Environmental Prize for his work on forest protection; he is an agronomist.

## Holland

Main page: List of biologists

## Honduras

- Julieta Castellanos - she has the award, the the International Women of Courage Award from the U.S. State Department.

## Hungary

- János Bolyai, one of the founders of non-Euclidean geometry — a geometry that differs from Euclidean geometry in its definition of parallel lines; Mathematics; died in 1860
- Paul Erdős, published around 1,500 mathematical papers during his lifetime, a figure that remains unsurpassed; died 1996

## Iceland

- Gísli Guðjónsson - he is the creator of the Gudjonsson suggestibility scale

## India

Main page: List of Indian scientists

## India

- Satyendra Nath Bose, known for Bose–Einstein condensate and Bose–Einstein statistics; Mathematics, Physics; died in 1974
- Srinivasa Ramanujan, known for Landau–Ramanujan constant, Mock theta functions, Ramanujan conjecture, Ramanujan prime, Ramanujan–Soldner constant, Ramanujan theta function, Ramanujan's sum, Rogers–Ramanujan identities, Ramanujan's master theorem; Fellow of the Royal Society; Mathematics; died in 1920

## Indonesia

- Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie - a former president of Indonesia; scientist of aerospace engineering

## Italy

Main page: List of biologists

- Gerolamo Cardano, he invented - partially - the gimbal consisting of three concentric rings allowing a supported compass or gyroscope to rotate freely, and the Cardan shaft; died in 1576

## Iran

Main page: List of Iranian scientists

## Japan

- Masaaki Sugihara - former professor at the University of Tokyo
- Masao Iri
- Masatake Mori
- Motoo Kimura, and one other, introduced [or where the first to present] the neutral theory of molecular evolution; Population geneticis, Evolutionary biology; died in 1994
- Ryogo Hirota - former professor at Waseda University
- Shinichi Oishi

## Kazakhstan

- Askar Dzhumadildayev - member of the Kazakhstan National Academy of Science. He is a former member of Supreme Council of Kazakh SSR and Republic of Kazakhstan; he is a mathematician and physicist.

## Kosovo

- Idriz Ajeti (the first chief of Kosova Academy of Sciences and Arts)

## Kyrgyzstan

- Askar Akayev - he is a former president of Kyrgyzstan; he is a natural scientist.

## Laos

- Daosavanh Sanamxay - the discoverer of the Laotian giant flying squirrel(en); biologist

## Latvia

- Rūsiņš Mārtiņš Freivalds, discovered Freivalds' algorithm for checking the correctness of matrix products; Theoretical computer science; died in 2016

## Macedonia

- Ratko Janev, a member of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts; Atomic physics

## Morocco

- Ibn Ghazi al-Miknasi, wrote Meknes's history and a commentary to the treatise of Ibn al-Banna; a work that explained the mentioned work, was named ["The desire of students for an explanation of the calculator's craving"]
*Bughyat al-tulab fi sharh munyat al-hussab*(including, arithmetic and algebraic methods). Mathematics, linguistics; died in 1513

## Nepal

- Kumud Dhital - he is one of the members of the team that first transplanted a heart donated after circulatory death (DCD), where the heart has stopped beating; he is a surgeon.

## New Zealand

- Nancy Adams, got the awards, Queen's Service Order, and the New Zealand 1990 Commemoration Medal. Botany; died in 2007
- Margaret Cruickshank, the first registered woman doctor in New Zealand; died in 1918
- Fred Hollows; Medicine, surgery, ophthalmology; died in 1993
- Ernest Rutherford - he got the Nobel Prize in Chemistry; nuclear physicist, and chemist; he died in 1937
- Pat Suggate, creator of the the "Suggate rank scheme", which is used internationally by oil exploration companies to measure the oil and gas potential of sedimentary rocks; fellowship at Royal Society of New Zealand; died in 2016
- Maurice Wilkins, got the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine; his fields were Physics, Molecular biology; died in 2004

## North Korea

- Ri Sung-gi (He is the inventor of Vinalon, and he got the Lenin Prize)

## Norway

- Niels Henrik Abel, did the first complete proof demonstrating the impossibility of solving the general quintic equation (en) in radicals; died in 1829

## Romania

- Ion Creangă - he wrote books, including Childhood Memories; the education theorist died in 1889
- Solomon Marcus, recognised as an initiator of (, or one of the people that started) mathematical linguistics, and mathematical poetics; also a semiotician, he died in 2016

- George Emil Palade - he and two others got one Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine; the cell biologist died in 2008.

- Ion Heliade Rădulescu - the first president of the Romanian Academy; the linguist died in 1802
- Codrin Țapu - known as a writer about hypostatic approach to personality, and hypostatic abstraction" (en); he is a psychologist

## Russia

Main page: List of biologists

- Leonid Kantorovich - Russian mathematician
- Sofya Kovalevskaya - Russian mathematician

## Solomon Islands

- Hikuna Judge, collected the first known sample of the Vangunu giant rat; Tyrone Lavery and Judge gave the first species description (for the Vangunu giant rat)

## South Africa

Main page: List of biologists

## South Korea

- Yanghee Choi - he is a former minister of Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning; he is a computer scientist.

## Sweden

Main page: List of biologists

## Switzerland

Main page: List of biologists

- Leonhard Euler, was the first to show the notion of (or idea about), a mathematical function; died in 1783

## Syria

- Al-Battani, known for showing several relations within trigonometry; he lived and worked in a city that now belongs to Syria; died in 929

## Thailand

- Phraya Anuman Ratchathon - he was the first Thai scholar to conduct a serious study of Thai folkloristics, taking notes on the nocturnal village spirits of Thai folklore; the anthropologist and ethnographer died in 1969

## Tunisia

- Abbas Bahri, introduced the method of the critical points at infinity, which is a fundamental step in the calculus of variations; Mathematics, Variational analysis; died in 2016

## Turkey

Main page: List of Turkish scientists

- Feza Gürsey, took part in the formulation of E(6) grand unified theories; Mathematical physics; died in 1992

## Ukraine

Main page: List of mathematicians

- Kostiantyn Sytnyk - he was a Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada (a parliament) of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic; Botany; he died in 2017

## United States

Main pages: List of biologists and List of ecologists

- Thomas Edison - he and his workers made "the first practical incandescent light bulb"; died in 1931
- Benjamin Franklin, President of Pennsylvania, died in 1790

## Vietnam

- Ngô Bảo Châu - best known for proving the fundamental lemma for automorphic forms (en). He is the first Vietnamese national to have received the Fields Medal; mathematician

## Related pages

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List of scientists Facts for Kids. *Kiddle Encyclopedia.*