The phase field model utilizing the strain energy functional was used to simulate an improper martensitic transformation in an unconstrained material under stresses. Internal constrains were simulated by a non-transforming layer. The polytwinned martensite structure was obtained. Simulation demonstrated that both the applied load and the character of internal constrains determine the martensite structure. Hysteresis was obtained on simulated stress vs. strain curves.

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Conference Proceedings of the 1999 International Symposium and Exhibition on Shape Memory Materials (SMM'99)
Artemev, A, & Khachaturyan, A.G. (A. G.). (2000). Phase field model and computer simulation of martensitic transformation under applied stresses. Materials Science Forum, 347–350. doi:10.4028/