Chronic HCV can result in advanced liver disease, including cirrhosis. Patients with advanced fibrosis experience poor clinical outcomes and increased risk for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). These outcomes are, in part, a consequence of immune dysfunction. Increased inhibitory receptor and Galectin-9 (GAL-9) expression is a possible mechanism promoting lymphocyte dysfunction. In this study, we measured the expression of inhibitory receptors and GAL-9 on T/NK cells of patients with chronic HCV with no to moderate fibrosis (F0-F2) and advanced fibrosis (F3-F4). To analyze their co-expression, we employed t-SNE analysis. Notably, we found that F3-F4 patients had higher frequencies of >3 inhibitory receptor co-expression on NK cells. Moreover, F3-F4 patients manifest a higher frequency of NK cells co-expressing TIGIT and TIM-3, and CD4/NK cells co-expressing LAG-3 and GAL-9. In conclusion, we identified phenotypes of immune dysregulation that could explain the increased susceptibility to infection and HCC in patients with chronic HCV with advanced fibrosis.Virology; Immunology

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Keywords Immunology, Virology
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Journal iScience
Okwor, C.I.A. (Chisom Ifeoma Adaeze), Oh, J.S. (Jun Seok), Crawley, A.M, Cooper, C.L. (Curtis Lindsey), & Lee, S.-H. (Seung-Hwan). (2020). Expression of Inhibitory Receptors on T and NK Cells Defines Immunological Phenotypes of HCV Patients with Advanced Liver Fibrosis. iScience, 23(9). doi:10.1016/j.isci.2020.101513