We propose a surface warping technique we call warped virtual surfaces (WVS). WVS is similar to applying CD gain to mouse cursor on a screen and is used with traditionally 1:1 input devices, in our case, a tablet and stylus, for use with VR head-mounted displays (HMDs). WVS allows users to interact with arbitrarily large virtual panels in VR while getting the benefits of passive haptic feedback from a fixed-sized physical panel. To determine the extent to which WVS affects user performance, we conducted an experiment with 24 participants using a Fitts' law reciprocal tapping task to compare different scale factors. Results indicate there was a significant difference in movement time for large scale factors. However, for throughput (ranging from 3.35 - 3.47 bps) and error rate (ranging from 3.6 - 5.4%), our analysis did not find a significant difference between scale factors. Using non-inferiority statistical testing (a form of equivalence testing), we show that performance in terms of throughput and error rate for large scale factors is no worse than a 1-to-1 mapping. Our results suggest WVS is a promising way of providing large tactile surfaces in VR, using small physical surfaces, and with little impact on user performance.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Human computer interaction (HCI), Human computer interaction (HCI), Human-centered computing, Interaction paradigms, Interaction techniques, Pointing - Human-centered computing, Virtual reality
Conference Graphics Interface 2020, GI 2020
Didehkhorshid, S.A.A. (Seyed Amir Ahmad), & Teather, R. (2020). Selection performance using a scaled virtual stylus cursor in VR. In Proceedings - Graphics Interface.