The index change and birefringence resulting from K+-Na+ ion exchange in glass are shown to be mainly due to induced surface stresses. The importance of this fact with regard to the fabrication of optical waveguides is discussed.

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Journal Electronics Letters
Albert, J, & Yip, G.L. (Gar Lam). (1987). Stress-induced index change for K+-Na+ ion exchange in glass. Electronics Letters. doi:10.1049/el:19870522