This paper presents the expansion and implementation of the controlled passive dynamic running (CPDR) strategy for legged robots, previously presented by the authors. The CPDR exploits the underlying passive dynamic operation of the robot's mechanical systems to reduce the energy spent for locomotion. Meanwhile, it ensures the stability of the vertical and forward motions as the robot speed varies. An "adaptive energy controller" stabilizes the hopping height accurately over a range of operating conditions. The passive dynamic derivations for the Monopod, together with the foot-placement algorithm and model-based joint controllers, are used to control the forward speed about the passive operation trajectories. New locomotion variables are used for robust synchronization between the hip-body and the leg oscillations. ARL-Monopod II achieved a speed of 1.25 m/s with specific resistance (a measure for energy cost of locomotion) of 30% of the earlier robot ARL-Monopod I, its predecessor, due to the newer hip and leg design and application of the CPDR control strategy.

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Keywords Control, Legged robot, Monopod, Passive dynamics
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Journal IEEE Transactions on Robotics
Ahmadi, M, & Buehler, M. (Martin). (2006). Controlled passive dynamic running experiments with the ARL-Monopod II. IEEE Transactions on Robotics, 22(5), 974–986. doi:10.1109/TRO.2006.878935