The effects of a rapid transfer from a low (3 °C) to a warm (23 °C) temperature on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defenses were studied in the brain, liver and kidney of the goldfish, Carassius auratus. Cold-acclimated fish were acutely moved to 23 °C and sampled after 1, 6, 12, 24, 48 or 120 h of warm temperature exposure. Lipid peroxide levels increased quickly during the first few hours at 23 °C, but thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances changed little. Protein carbonyl content was reduced by 20-40% in the liver over the entire experimental course, but increased transiently in the kidney. The content of high-molecular mass thiols decreased by two-thirds in the brain and was affected slightly in other organs. By contrast, total low-molecular mass thiols (e.g. glutathione and others) increased transiently. Activities of the primary antioxidant enzymes-superoxide dismutase and catalase-were generally unaffected in goldfish organs, whereas glutathione-dependent enzymes were elevated in the brain and kidney after 24-48 h at 23 °C. Glutathione peroxidase increased by 1.5-2.3-fold and glutathione-S-transferase by 1.7-fold. Hence, a short-term exposure to warm temperature disturbed several oxidative stress markers, but only slightly affected the activities of antioxidant enzymes. However, comparison of the current data for cold-acclimated winter fish with the same parameters in summer fish suggests that longer exposure to high ambient temperature requires the enhancement of activities of glutathione-dependent enzymes for maintaining the steady-state levels lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in goldfish tissues.

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Keywords Antioxidant enzymes, Goldfish, Lipid peroxidation, Oxidative stress, Temperature adaptation
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Journal Journal of Thermal Biology
Bagnyukova, T.V., Lushchak, O.V., Storey, K, & Lushchak, V.I. (2007). Oxidative stress and antioxidant defense responses by goldfish tissues to acute change of temperature from 3 to 23 °C. Journal of Thermal Biology, 32(4), 227–234. doi:10.1016/j.jtherbio.2007.01.004