The effects of intraperitoneal injection of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) on free radical processes were examined in brain, liver and kidney of goldfish (Carassius auratus). Levels of oxidatively modified lipids and proteins as well as the activities of antioxidant and associated enzymes were measured. Intraperitoneal injection of DDC at a concentration of 0.01 mg/g wet mass decreased SOD activities by about 30-50% after 48 and 168 h compared to corresponding sham-injected values. This treatment resulted in transient oxidative stress. Lipid peroxide content increased after DDC injection at all time points in the kidney, after 48 h in the liver and was elevated in most experimental groups in the brain. Thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances (end products of lipid peroxidation) rose within the first 48 h after injection, but returned to initial levels after 168 h. Two other indices of oxidative stress were also transiently modified: protein carbonyl levels in the brain and kidney increased 24 h post-injection, and the low-molecular mass thiol content was reduced over the same period in all tissues examined. Activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase showed differential responses to DDC treatment that rebounded by 168 h post-injection. Glutathione peroxidase activities were reduced by 60, 45 and 65% in the brain, liver and kidney, respectively, after 24 h but rebounded thereafter. After 48 h post-injection with DDC significant decreases were also seen in liver and kidney catalase, GST activities in all three tissues, and kidney GR and G6PDH activities. In some cases, catalase, GST, GR and G6PDH activities transiently increased after 24 h. It was concluded that DDC injection depleted SOD and simultaneously stimulated lipid peroxidation, but did not require compensatory enhancement of other enzymatic defenses. Different actions of the superoxide anion in cellular metabolism and possible consequences of the impairment of superoxide dismutase are discussed.

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Chemico-Biological Interactions
Department of Biology

Lushchak, V.I. (Volodymyr I.), Bagnyukova, T.V. (Tetyana V.), Lushchak, O.V. (Oleh V.), Storey, J, & Storey, K. (2007). Diethyldithiocarbamate injection induces transient oxidative stress in goldfish tissues. Chemico-Biological Interactions, 170(1), 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2007.06.033