This paper proposes FML, an XML-based face modeling and animation language. FML provides a structured content description method for multimedia presentations based on face animation. The language can be used as direct input to compatible players, or be compiled within MPEG-4 XMT framework to create MPEG-4 presentations. The language allows parallel and sequential action description, decision-making and dynamic event-based scenarios, model configuration, and behavioral template definition. Facial actions include talking, expressions, head movements, and low-level MPEG-4 FAPs. The ShowFace and iFACE animation frameworks are also reviewed as example FML-based animation systems.

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IEEE Transactions on Multimedia
School of Information Technology

Arya, A, & DiPaola, S. (Steve). (2007). Face modeling and animation language for MPEG-4 XMT framework. IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 9(6), 1137–1146. doi:10.1109/TMM.2007.902862