For digital rights management (DRM) software implementations incorporating cryptography, white-box cryptography (cryptographic implementation designed to withstand the white-box attack context) is more appropriate than traditional black-box cryptography. In the white-box context, the attacker has total visibility into software implementation and execution. Our objective is to prevent extraction of secret keys from the program. We present methods to make such key extraction difficult, with focus on symmetric block ciphers implemented by substitution boxes and linear transformations. A DES implementation (useful also for triple-DES) is presented as a concrete example.

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Chow, S. (Stanley), Eisen, P. (Phil), Johnson, H. (Harold), & Van Oorschot, P. (2003). A white-box DES implementation for DRM applications.